After Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s abruptly announced lockdown of the country rendered millions of migrant workers homeless and out of work, many of them set out on journeys back to their hometowns by foot. With many lives lost in transit, the lockdown has since become a humanitarian disaster of its own as India sees its largest internal migration since Partition. On 29 March, the ministry of home affairs issued a set of mandates for state and local governments to deal with the fallout. However, these demands—clearly an attempt to pass the buck to the state and local governments—threaten to sow further confusion and result in further persecution of migrant workers and their families.
On Sunday morning, in a videoconference with officials of the ministry of home affairs, state chief secretaries and directors general of police, the cabinet secretary Rajiv Gauba ordered that borders between states be strictly sealed, and encouraged stern action against those violating lockdown orders. But Gauba also acknowledged that many had already crossed state lines, and demanded that state governments enforce 14-day quarantines for all those who had. In a letter, also released on 29 March, the ministry of home affairs directed the state and union territory governments and authorities to “take necessary action and issue necessary orders to their district magistrate/deputy commissioner and senior superintendant of police/superintendant of police/deputy commissioner of police” to take five measures to mitigate the suffering caused by the mass migration, effective immediately. These include providing support for stranded migrants; enforcing a one-month-long freeze on rent collection; banning evictions; ensuring that employers remit pay during the period that their establishment is closed due to the shutdown; and assuring that all migrants undergo quarantine for fourteen days in government-run facilities after arriving at their destinations.
The first point in the letter orders the state and union territory governments to “ensure adequate arrangements of temporary shelters, and provisions of food etc. for the poor and needy people, including migrant labourers, stranded due to lockdown measures in their respective areas.” This measure aims to keep migrants in place, and prevent them from undertaking the mass exoduses that have begun to sweep the nation. Arvind Kejriwal, the chief minister of Delhi, has called upon migrants stranded in Delhi to stay put. “The governments of UP and Delhi have arranged buses. Still, I appeal all to remain where they are. We have made arrangements for stay and food. Please stay at home. Do not go back to your village, otherwise the objective of the lockdown will fail,” Kejriwal said in a Hindi tweet. The Delhi government has also promised to provide food to four lakh poverty-stricken people in 224 night shelters and 325 schools. But measures such as these do not seem to be adequate incentive for many to remain in place—on Saturday, thousands of workers crowded the Anand Vihar bus station in Delhi clamouring for seats on the over 1,000 buses arranged by the Uttar Pradesh and Delhi governments.
The second point of the letter orders that “the migrant people, who have moved out to reach their home states/home towns, must be kept in the nearest shelter by the respective state/union territory government quarantine facilities after proper screening for a minimum period of 14 days as per standard health protocol.” This is a departure from the centre’s previous policy on quarantining its citizens—when Indian and foreign nationals arrived from abroad via air in mid March, they were allowed to self-quarantine for fourteen days in their own homes, rather than in government facilities. But Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have already made government-quarantine mandatory: Yogi Adityanath, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, has ordered quarantine for the approximately one hundred thousand people who have arrived in the state over the past four days, while Nitish Kumar, chief minister of Bihar, has also called on local officials to set up temporary camps in which to quarantine returning residents. In Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, in an incident caught on video, migrant laborers were forced to huddle in a crowd while authorities in hazmat suits sprayed them with chlorine and water.
“If they enforce this without coming in with an economic package that will ensure that their families will survive, it will be a cruelty compounded upon cruelty,” Harsh Mander, the director of the the think tank Center for Equity Studies, told me. “I cannot imagine where millions of people are going to be housed in quarantine. I have no idea how it would be feasible. It is a cruel but also unimplementable idea.”